Industrial Engineering

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Industrial Accidents and industrial safety

Industrial Accidents and industrial safety
The industrialization process has brought a large number of problems; one of them is related to industrial accidents. With advances in industrial processes, new type of dangers to life, limb and health are being increasingly introduced. Everyday employees are injured in factories due to accidents. The accidents may be caused as a result on any kind of unsafe activity, or act in their part or chance occurrences, or as a result of some unsafe working conditions or unsafe act of employees themselves, or defective plant or shop layout. The pain and suffering of the injured as well as the emotional loss to the victims of the accidents causing permanent disabilities are impossible to be summed up and evaluated.
What’s the definition of accident?
The most agreed definition of accident is “It is an unplanned and uncontrolled event which causes or is likely to cause an injury”.
Types of accidents in industry
Accidents in industry can be classified using different criteria. Specific classifications are shown in the next lines.
According to causes of events
Machine accidents
Machines are responsible for a large number of accidents in an industry. Depending on the way harm is caused, accidents from machines can be classified into the following groups:
  • Contact: physical contact of the body with any moving part of a machine;
  • Impact: parts of the body are violently hit by moving parts of machines;
  • Traps: parts of the body coming between the moving parts which mostly lead to crushing of parts of body trapped;
  • Ejection of particles: parts projected at high velocity from the machine, which causes serious injury when they hit the parts of the moving body.
Non machine accidents
In this type we include:
Fall of persons which can be due to
  • Tripping over obstacles on ground
  • Slipping due to oily or greasy substances
  • Running inside the shop, sudden fear or excitement
Fall from a height which can be due to
  • Lack of firm foot hold or unsafe postures
  • Working on a machine at a height
  • Leaning from ladder to reach a distant object
  • Strike against the objects
  • Pushes by other persons on the slop
According to length of recovery
  • Lost time accidents: lost time accidents are those in which worker loses a day or shift in which accident occurred. These require payment of compensation to employee to employer.
  • Home-case accidents: in this type of accidents, worker loses the remainder of shift or turn on which the accident has occurred.
  • First aid cases: in these, workers receive first aid attention at plant hospital and then returns to their job.
According to nature of injury
  • Fatal accidents: in which the worker or more are killed.
  • Permanent disablement: which incapacitate an employee and makes it impossible for him to engage in any work, which was capable of performing at the time of the accident.
  • Temporary disablement: this reduces the earning capacity of an individual in the employment.


Definition of safety and industrial hygiene

Definition of safety and industrial hygiene
Safety at work
According to Bestratén (1999), safety at work is "the set of techniques and procedures that are designed to eliminate or reduce the risk of accidents."
Therefore, safety at work is concerned with addressing a number of hazards that affect industrial accidents, such as:
  • Electrical hazards;
  •  Lack of mechanisms of protection against moving parts of machinery, equipment and tools;
  •  Falls of heavy objects;
 
  • Poor conditions of order and cleanliness in the workplace;
 
  • Fire Hazards
To achieve safety at work, we should develop preventive actions that fall within both general and specific rules, such as:
  • The mission and vision of the company;
  • The safety policies;
  • Procedures at work;
  • Staff training;
  • Incorporation of safety devices on machines, equipment and facilities.
Industrial hygiene
According to Hernandez and Marti (1989), industrial hygiene is the discipline that aims the prevention of occupational diseases by controlling chemical, physical or biological agents in the working environment.
The (chemical, physical or biological) agents mentioned have effect in the workplace; not only directly for workers who perform a particular task, but also for people from other areas that are part of that environment. Moreover, the presence of these agents also affects the external environment of the company like nearby businesses, nearby communities and in general the soil, air and water.
In order to reduce occupational risks of emerging pollutants, three objectives are established:
  1. Controls on the origin and source of danger;
  2. Controls on the path between the hazard and the worker;
  3. Controls on the subject exposed to danger.

Productivity and industrial engineering



Productivity and industrial engineering
What is productivity?
Applied in an enterprise, a sector of economic activity or the economy as a whole, productivity may be defined as an output and input relation.
The term productivity can be used to asses or measure the extent to which a certain output can be extracted from a given input. This may appears simple enough in cases where both the output and the input are tangible and can be easily measured; however, in cases where intangibles are introduced measure of productivity can be more difficult.
Calculation of productivity
Productivity can be calculated as follows:
Productivity and industrial engineering in goods production
In the case of goods production, the objective is the manufacturing to a better cost, through the raw material, with productivity of the primary resources of production: Materials, human resources and machines. It's on these, where the action of industrial engineers should address their efforts. Increasing productivity indexes and reducing production costs, are fundamental tasks of an industrial engineer.

The domain of industrial and systems engineering

The domain of industrial and systems engineering
Definition of Industrial and Systems Engineering
According with Womack and Jones (1996), an Industrial and Systems Engineer is one who is concerned with the design, installation, and improvement of integrated systems of people, material, information, equipment, and energy by drawing upon specialized knowledge and skills in the mathematical, physical, and social sciences, together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems’’.
The work of and industrial and systems engineering
But, what kind of system is it that Industrial and Systems Engineering work to optimize? In the context of organizations, we can say that the ultimate system of interest is the extended enterprise.
Industrial and system engineers must see how performance improvement in the target subsystem (warehouse layout, work cell configuration, display /human-equipment interface, queue design, simulation, supply chain, etc.) serves the higher good or works to optimize the performance of the larger system.
The domain of industrial and systems engineering
Basically, industrial and systems engineering works in four areas: manufacturing systems engineering, management systems, operations research and human factors engineering. Of course, each of these areas needs basic knowledge of mathematics, accounting, economics, statistics, psychology, etc.
A simple representation of the domain of industrial and systems engineering is shown below.
The Industrial and systems engineering value proposition isn’t only knowledge; it is the ability to reduce that knowledge to practice in such a way that it produces positive business results.

Activities of industrial engineering

Activities of industrial engineering

Most important activities of industrial engineering are:

  • Development of time standards, costing and performance standards.
  • Selection of processes and assembling methods.
  • Selection and design of tools and equipment.
  • Design of facilities including plant location, layout of building, machines and equipment, material handling system raw materials and finished goods storage facilities.
  • Design and improvement of planning and control systems for production, inventory, quality and plant maintenance and distribution systems.
  • Cost control systems.
  • Development and installation of job evaluation systems.
  • Installation of wage incentive schemes.
  • Design and installation of value engineering and analysis system.
  • Operation research.
  • Mathematical and statistical analysis.
  • Performance evaluation.
  • Organization and methods.
  • Supplier selection and evaluation.

About Industrial engineering

About Industrial engineering

Nowadays economic scenario is marked by increasing competition in almost every sector of economy. The expectations of customers are on rise and manufacturers have to design and products in order to satisfy them. Thus, there is a challenge before the industries to manufacture goods of right quantity and quality and at the right time and at minimum cost for their survival and growth. This demands an increase in productive efficiency of organizations. Industrial engineering plays a vital role in increasing the productivity. Industrial engineering techniques are used to analyze and improve the work methods in order to eliminate waste and proper allocation and utilization of resources.

How can industrial engineering be defined?

Industrial engineering can be defined as a profession in which a knowledge of mathematical and natural sciences gained by study, experience and practice is applied with judgment to develop the ways to utilize economically the materials and other natural resources and forces of nature for the benefit of mankind.

The American Institute of Industrial Engineers define industrial engineering as:

Industrial engineering is concerned with the design, improvement and installation of integrated systems of men, material and equipment. It draws upon specialized knowledge and skills in the mathematical, physical sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design to specify, predict and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems.

The prime objective of industrial engineering is to increase the productivity by eliminating waste and non-value adding (unproductive) operations and improving the effective utilization of resources.

Productivity, types of productivity, productivity index, total productivity

Productivity, types of productivity, productivity index, total productivity

Whats is productivity?

Productivity is the ratio of output to some or all of the resources used to produce the output.

Types of productivity

We can mention the following types of partial productivities:

  • Labor productivity: units produced / hours worked
  • Capital productivity: output / capital input
  • Material productivity: output /material input

What is the productivity index?

We can calculate a type of partial productivity as labor productivity as output per man hours for a complete year. These figures obtained from year to year can be indexed and can be related to a base year so that output per man our comparisons can be made.

Definition of total productivity

It is the ratio of tangible output and tangible input.

Differences among partial productivity, total factor productivity and total productivity

Men, materials, machines, methods, money, energy, etc. are inputs.

  • Partial productivity: output / one class of input
  • Total factor productivity: net output / (labor + capital)
  • Total productivity : sum of all tangible outputs / sum of all tangible inputs

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