Industrial Engineering

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HUMAN FACTORS IN INDUSTRIAL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

HUMAN FACTORS IN INDUSTRIAL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

Human factors is a science that investigates human behavioural, cognitive, and physical abilities and limitations in order to understand how individual and teams will interact with products and systems.

Human factors engineering is the discipline that takes this knowledge and uses it to specify, design, and test systems to optimize safety, productivity, effectiveness, and satisfaction.

Human factors is important to industrial and systems engineering because of the prevalence of humans within industrial systems. It is humans who, for the most part, are called on to design, manufacture, operate, monitor, maintain, and repair industrial systems. In each of these cases, human factors should be uses to ensure that the design will meet system requirements in performance, productivity, quality, reliability, and safety.

The importance of including human factors in systems design cannot be overemphasized. There are countless examples that illustrate its importance for systems performance. Mackenzie found in 1994 that in a survey of 1100 computer-related fatalities between 1979 and 1992. 92% could be attributed to failures in the interaction between a human and computer. The extend of the 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant was largely due to human factors challenges, almost resulting in a disastrous nuclear catastrophe. The infamous butterfly ballot problem in Florida in the 2000 U.S. presidential election is a clear example of an inadequate system interface yielding remarkably poor performance. Web sites such as baddesigns.com and thisisbrokenn.com provide extensive listings of designs from everyday life that suffer from poor consideration of human factors. Neophytes often refer to human factors as common sense. However, the prevalence of poor design suggests that human factors sense is not as common as one might think. The consequences of poor human factors design can be inadequate system performance, reduced product sales, significant product damage, and human injury.

WHAT IS OPERATIONAL OR OPERATIONS RESEARCH?

WHAT IS OPERATIONAL OR OPERATIONS RESEARCH?

Operational Research (OR) is the use of advanced analytical techniques to improve decision making. It is sometimes known as Operations Research, Management Science or Industrial Engineering. People with skills in OR hold jobs in decision support, business analytics, marketing analysis and logistics planning – as well as jobs with OR in the title.

WHY IS OR NEEDED?

Because it makes sense to make the best use of available resources. Today’s global markets and instant communications mean that customers expect high-quality products and services when they need them, where they need them. Organizations, whether public or private, need to provide these products and services as effectively and efficiently as possible. This requires careful planning and analysis – the hallmarks of good OR. This is usually based on process modelling, analysis of options or business analytics.

EXAMPLES OF OR IN ACTION

  • Scheduling: of aircrews and the fleet for airlines, of vehicles in supply chains, of orders in a factory and of operating theatres in a hospital.
  • Facility planning: computer simulations of airports for the rapid and safe processing of travellers, improving appointments systems for medical practice.
  • Planning and forecasting: identifying possible future developments in telecommunications, deciding how much capacity is needed in a holiday business.
  • Yield management: setting the prices of airline seats and hotel rooms to reflect changing demand and the risk of no shows.
  • Credit scoring: deciding which customers offer the best prospects for credit companies.
  • Marketing: evaluating the value of sale promotions, developing customer profiles and computing the life-time value of a customer.
  • Defence and peace keeping: finding ways to deploy troops rapidly.
  • Some OR methods and techniques
  • Computer simulation: allowing you to try out approaches and test ideas for improvement.
  • Optimization: narrowing your choices to the very best when there are so many feasible options that comparing them one by one is difficult.
  • Probability and statistics: helping you measure risk, mine data to find valuable connections and insights in business analytics, test conclusions, and make reliable forecasts.
  • Problem structuring: helpful when complex decisions are needed in situations with many stakeholders and competing interests.

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING- TIES TO THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (Part two)

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING- TIES TO THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (Part two)

It is widely recognized that the occupational discipline that has contributed the most to the development of modern society is engineering, through its various segments of focus. Engineers design and build the infrastructure that sustains the society. This includes roads, residential and commercial buildings, bridges, canals, tunnels, communication systems, healthcare facilities, schools, habitats, transportation systems, and factories. The Industrial Engineering process of systems integration facilitates the success of these infrastructures. In this sense, the scope of Industrial and Systems Engineering spans all the levels of activity, task, job, project, program, process, system, enterprise, and society.

It is essential to recognize the alliance between industry and Industrial Engineering as the core basis for the profession. The profession has branched off on too many different tangents over the years. Hence, it has witnessed the emergence of Industrial Engineering professionals who claim sole allegiance to some narrow line of practice, focus, or specialization rather than the core profession itself. Industry is the original basis of Industrial Engineering and it should be preserved as the core focus. This should be supported by the different areas of specialization. While it is essential that we extend the scope of Industrial Engineering to other domains, it should be realized that over-divergence of practice will not sustain the profession. A fragmented profession cannot survive for long. The incorporation of systems can help to bind everything together.

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING - TIES TO THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (Part one)

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING - TIES TO THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (Part one)

Industrial engineering has a proud heritage with a link that can be traced back to the Industrial Revolution. Although the practice of Industrial Engineering has been in existence for centuries, the work of Frederick Taylor in the early 20th century was the first emergence of the profession. It has been referred to with different names and connotations. Scientific management was one of the original names used to describe what industrial engineers do.

Industry, the root of the profession’s name, clearly explains what the profession is about. The dictionary defines industry generally as the ability to produce and deliver goods and services. The industry in Industrial Engineering can be viewed as the application of skills and cleverness to achieve work objectives. This relates to how human effort is harnessed innovatively to carry out work. Thus, any activity can be defined as industry if it generates a product, be it service or physical product. A systems view of Industrial Engineering encompasses all the details and aspects necessary for applying skills and accuracy to produce work efficiently. Hence the academic curriculum of Industrial Engineering must change, evolve, and adapt to the changing systems environment of the profession.

INDUSTRIAL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING - WHAT IS SYSTEMS ENGINEERING?

INDUSTRIAL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING - WHAT IS SYSTEMS ENGINEERING?

Systems engineering involves a recognition, appreciation, and integration of all aspects of an organization or a facility. A system is defined as a collection of interrelated elements working together in synergy to produce a composite output that is greater than the sum of the individual outputs of the components. A system view of a process facilitates a comprehensive inclusion of all the factors involved in the process. Systems engineering is the application of a multi-faceted problem through a systematic collection and integration of parts of the problem with respect to the lifecycle of the problem. It is the branch of engineering concerned with the development, implementation, and use of large or complex systems.

It focuses on specific goals of a system considering the specifications, prevailing constraints, expected services, possible behaviours, and structure of the system. It also involves a consideration of the activities required to assure that the system’s performance matches the stated goals. Systems engineering addresses the integration of tools, people, and processes required to achieve a cost-effective and timely operation of the system.


WHAT IS INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING?

WHAT IS INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING?

Industrial engineering can be described as the practical application of combination of engineering fields, together with the principles of scientific management. It is the engineering of work processes and the application of engineering methods, practices, and knowledge to production and service enterprises. Industrial engineering places a strong emphasis on an understanding of workers and their needs in order to increase and improve production and service activities. Industrial engineering activities and techniques include the following:

  • Designing jobs (determining the most economic way to perform work).
  • Setting performance standards and benchmarks for quality, quantity, and cost.
  • Designing and installing facilities.

An important aspect of industrial engineering is its concern with the human element in industrial processes. The classical industrial engineering of the late 19th and early 20th centuries emphasized time studies, work sampling, methods engineering, costing methods, and employee incentives to make human interaction with industrial processes cost effective and reliable. Modern industrial engineering, in addition to the classical methods, deals with mathematical process modelling, management science methods, automation, and robotics. The use of advanced mathematical methods has become possible with the advent of computers.

Mathematical process modelling allows the consideration of all available information on a process and the prediction of outcomes for given inputs and process parameters. The work of industrial engineers is varied and ranges from practical aspects of data gathering and analysis to the use of advanced mathematical methods of process simulation and optimization, as firms seek to reduce costs and increase productivity. Industrial engineers are in demand in all industries, ranging from manufacturing to service enterprises.

ORIGINS OF INDUSTRIAL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING (Part two)

ORIGINS OF INDUSTRIAL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING (Part two)

Some of the major functions of industrial engineers involve the following:

  • Designing integrated systems of people, technology, process, and methods.
  • Developing performance modelling, measurement, and evaluation for systems.
  • Developing and maintaining quality standards for industry and business.
  • Applying production principles to pursue improvements in service organizations.
  • Incorporating technology effectively into work processes.
  • Developing cost mitigation, avoidance, or containment strategies.
  • Improving overall productivity of integrated systems of people, materials, and processes.
  • Recognizing and incorporate factors affecting performance of a composite system.
  • Planning, organizing, scheduling, and controlling production and service projects.
  • Organizing teams to improve efficiency and effectiveness of and organization.
  • Installing technology to facilitate work flow.
  • Enhancing information flow to facilitate smooth operations of systems.
  • Coordinating materials and equipment for effective systems performance.

ORIGINS OF INDUSTRIAL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING (Part one)

ORIGINS OF INDUSTRIAL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING (Part one)

Industrial engineering thrives on systems perspectives just as systems thrive on Industrial Engineering approaches. One cannot treat topics of Industrial Engineering without recognizing systems perspectives and vice versa. A generic definition of Industrial Engineering, adopted by the Institute of Industrial Engineers (IIE) states:

“Industrial Engineer – One who is concerned with the design, installation, and improvement of integrated systems of people, materials, information, equipment, and energy by drawing upon specialized knowledge and skills in the mathematical, physical, and social sciences, together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems”.

The above definition embodies the various aspects of what an industrial engineer does. Although some practitioners find the definition to be too convoluted, it nonetheless describes an industrial engineer. As can be seen, the profession is very versatile, flexible, and diverse. It can also be seen from the definition that a systems orientation permeates the work of industrial engineers.


WHAT IS METHODS ENGINEERING?

WHAT IS METHODS ENGINEERING?

A technique used by progressive management to improve productivity and reduce costs in both direct and indirect operations of manufacturing and non-manufacturing business organizations. Methods engineering is applicable in any enterprise wherever human effort is required. It can be defined as the systematic procedure for subjecting all direct and indirect operations to close scrutiny in order to introduce improvements that will make work easier to perform and will allow work to be done smoother in less time, and with less energy, effort, and fatigue, with less investment per unit. The ultimate objective of methods engineering is profit improvement. See also Operations research; Productivity.

Methods engineering includes five activities: planning, methods study, standardization, work measurement, and controls. Methods engineering, through planning, first identifies the amount of time that should be spent on a project so as to get as much of the potential savings as is practical. Invariably the most profitable jobs to study are those with the most repetition, the highest labor content (human work as distinguished from mechanical or process work), the highest labor cost, or the longest life-span. Next, through methods study, methods are improved by observing what is currently being done and then by developing better ways of doing it. The standardization phase includes the training of the operator to follow the standard method. Then the number of standard hours in which operators working with standard performances can do their job is determined by measurement. Finally, the established method is periodically audited, and various management controls are adjusted with the new time data. The system may include a plan for compensating labor that encourages attaining or surpassing a standard performance.

ABOUT INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

ABOUT INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

Industrial engineering (IE) is all about choices - it is the engineering discipline that offers the most wide- ranging array of opportunities in terms of employment, and it is distinguished by its flexibility. While other engineering disciplines tend to apply skills to very specific areas, Industrial Engineers may be found working everywhere: from traditional manufacturing companies to airlines, from distribution companies to financial institutions, from major medical establishments to consulting companies, from high-tech corporations to companies in the food industry.

Industrial Engineering is the only engineering discipline with close links to management - many Industrial Engineers (IE's) move on to successful careers in management. Also, if you think that one day you will start and run your own company, an Industrial Engineering program will provide you with the best training for this - regardless of what the company will actually do!
So what do Industrial Engineers do?
In very simple terms, while engineers typically make things, IE's figure out how to make or do things better. This is what gives IE's so much flexibility - as you can imagine, everyone would like to do things better! IE's are primarily concerned with two closely related issues: productivity and quality. They address these two issues by looking at integrated systems of machines, human beings, information, computers and other resources. A variety of skills and techniques are used to design and operate such systems in the most productive way possible, while continuously improving them and maintaining the highest levels of quality. IE's make significant contributions to their employers by making money for them while, at the same time, making the workplace better for fellow workers.

DEFINITIONS ABOUT INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

DEFINITIONS ABOUT INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

Here are some extremely wordy definitions which attempt to say the same thing

What is Industrial Engineering?
Industrial engineers focus on systems and how system components fit together. They often are the people who lead the way in understanding how to use the finite resources of the world to the maximum advantage. Industrial engineers must understand people as well as technology. Consequently, industrial engineering draws upon a variety of different disciplines, from mathematics to psychology, from communications to computer science, from production management to process control.
What is Industrial Engineering?
Industrial engineering is concerned with the design, improvement and installation of integrated systems of people, material, information, equipment and energy. It draws upon specialized knowledge and skills in the mathematical, physical and social sciences, together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design to specify, predict and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems.
What is Industrial Engineering?
Industrial engineering (IE) is about choices. Other engineering disciplines apply skills to very specific areas. Industrial engineering gives you the opportunity to work in lots of different kinds of businesses. The most distinctive aspect of industrial engineering is the flexibility that it offers. Whether it's shortening a rollercoaster line, streamlining an operating room, distributing products worldwide, or manufacturing superior automobiles... It's all in a day's work for an industrial engineer.
What is Industrial Engineering?
Industrial engineers determine the most effective ways for an organization to use the basic factors of production—people, machines, materials, information, and energy—to make or process a product or produce a service. They are the bridge between management goals and operational performance. They are more concerned with increasing productivity through the management of people, methods of business organization, and technology than are engineers in other specialties, who generally work more with products or processes.

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERS MAKE SYSTEMS PRODUCTIVE

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERS MAKE SYSTEMS PRODUCTIVE

What Really Is Industrial Engineering?
It is a difficult definition because other jobs are easy to describe:
  • Doctors make people well
  • Electrical engineers work with electricity
  • Teachers teach
  • Civil engineers build roads and bridges
  • Firemen put out fires

Here's the best suggestion Institute of Industrial Engineers has heard:

People always ask "What is Industrial Engineering?" And to that question there is no real reply, we are found everywhere, doing everything. Industrial Engineering is about "process engineering" rather than "product engineering" which gives up a difficult job description. The best answer is the simplest one... Industrial Engineers make systems productive.

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING POSTGRADUATE CURRICULUM

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING POSTGRADUATE CURRICULUM

The postgraduate programmes in industrial engineering have long been held as probably the most diversified programme across industries. The usual postgraduate degree earned is the Master of Science in Industrial Engineering/Industrial Engineering & Management/Industrial Engineering & Operations Research. The typical MS in IE/IE&M/IE & OR curriculum includes:
  • Operations Research/Optimization Techniques
  • Operations Management
  • Supply Chain Mgmt & Logistics
  • Simulation & Stochastic Models
  • Manufacturing Systems
  • Engineering Economics
  • Corporate Planning
  • Human Factors Engineering/Ergonomics
  • Productivity Improvement
  • Production Planning and Control
  • Computer Aided Manufacturing
  • Material Management
  • Facilities Design and/or Work Space Design
  • Statistical process control Statistical Process Control or Quality Control
  • Time and Motion Study

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE CURRICULUM

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE CURRICULUM
In the United States, the usual undergraduate degree earned is the Bachelor of Science in Industrial Engineering (BSIE). The typical BSIE curriculum includes introductory chemistry, physics, economics, mathematics, statistics, properties of materials, intermediate coursework in mechanical engineering, computer science, and sometimes electrical engineering, and specialized courses such as the following:
  • Systems Simulation
  • Operations Research and/or Optimization
  • Combinatorial Mathematics
  • Engineering Economy
  • Engineering Administration/Management
  • Human Factors or Ergonomics
  • Time and Motion study
  • Manufacturing Engineering
  • Production Planning and Control
  • Computer Aided Manufacturing
  • Packaging engineering
  • Facilities Design and/or Work Space Design
  • Logistics and/or Supply Chain Management
  • Statistical Process Control or Quality Control
  • Stochastic Systems
  • Discrete Event Simulation
  • Linear Programming
  • Non-Linear Programming
  • Queuing Theory
  • Probability
  • Organizational Behavior
  • Statistics

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING HISTORY

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING HISTORY

Industrial engineering courses had been taught by multiple universities in the late 1800s along Europe, especially in very developed countries such as Germany, France and United Kingdom, but also in Spain in the Technical University of Madrid. In the United States,the first department of industrial engineering was established in 1908 at the Pennsylvania State University by Alex Kaserman.

The first doctoral degree in industrial engineering was awarded in the 1930s by Cornell University.

A DEFINITION OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

A DEFINITION OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING
Industrial engineering is also operations management, systems engineering, production engineering, manufacturing engineering or manufacturing systems engineering; a distinction that seems to depend on the viewpoint or motives of the user. Recruiters or educational establishments use the names to differentiate themselves from others. In healthcare, industrial engineers are more commonly known as management engineers or health systems engineers.

Where as most engineering disciplines apply skills to very specific areas, industrial engineering is applied in virtually every industry. Examples of where industrial engineering might be used include shortening lines (or queues) at a theme park, streamlining an operating room, distributing products worldwide (also referred to as Supply Chain Management), and manufacturing cheaper and more reliable automobiles. Industrial engineers typically use computer simulation, especially discrete event simulation, for system analysis and evaluation.

The name "industrial engineer" can be misleading. While the term originally applied to manufacturing, it has grown to encompass services and other industries as well. Similar fields include Operations Research, Management Science, Financial Engineering, Supply Chain, Manufacturing Engineering, Engineering Management, Overall Equipment Effectiveness, Systems Engineering, Ergonomics, Process Engineering, Value Engineering and Quality Engineering.

There are a number of things industrial engineers do in their work to make processes more efficient, to make products more manufacturable and consistent in their quality, and to increase productivity.

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING DEFINITIONS

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING DEFINITIONS

A branch of engineering dealing with the design, development, and implementation of integrated systems of humans, machines, and information resources to provide products and services. Industrial engineering encompasses specialized knowledge and skills in the physical, social, engineering, and management sciences, such as human and cognitive sciences, computer systems and information technologies, manufacturing processes, operations research, production, and automation. The industrial engineer integrates people into the design and development of systems, thus requiring an understanding of the physical, physiological, psychological, and other characteristics that govern and affect the performance of individuals and groups in working environments.

Industrial engineering is a broad field compared to other engineering disciplines. The major activities of industrial engineering stem from manufacturing industries and include work methods analysis and improvement; work measurement and the establishment of standards; machine tool analysis and design; job and workplace design; plant layout and facility design; materials handling; cost reduction; production planning and scheduling; inventory control, maintenance, and replacement; statistical quality control; scheduling; assembly-line balancing, systems, and procedures; and overall productivity improvement. Computers and information systems have necessitated additional activities and functions, including numerically controlled machine installation and programming; manufacturing systems design; computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, design of experiments, quality engineering, and statistical process control; computer simulation, operations research, and management science methods; computer applications, software development, and information technology; human-factors engineering and ergonomics; systems design and integration; and robotics and automation.

The philosophy and motivation of the industrial engineering profession is to find the most efficient and effective methods, procedures, and processes for an operating system, and to seek continuous improvement. Thus, industrial engineering helps organizations grow and expand efficiently during periods of prosperity, and streamline costs and consolidate and reallocate resources during austere times. Industrial engineers, particularly those involved in manufacturing and related industries, work closely with management. Therefore, some understanding of organizational behavior, finance, management, and related business principles and practices is needed.

Adds

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